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Aug
15

So much for the fight to save the West Coast wild salmon

Of course we won't want to be eating the farmed stuff either.

"Fukushima is what happens when we have the moral responsibility of infants and the technology of adults."

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At the Very Least, Your Days of Eating Pacific Ocean Fish Are Over | Collapsing Into Consciousness
Radiation by Gary Stamper. The heart-breaking news from Fukushima just keeps getting worse…a LOT worse…it is, quite simply, an out-of-control flow of death and destruction. TEPCO is finally admitting that radiation has been leaking to the Pacific Ocean all along. and it’s NOT over…

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7 comments

  1. Edward Morbius
    Edward Morbius says:

    Given the alarmist language and the use of an image labled "radiation" but which is in fact the tsunami wave height forecast from NOAA (see here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2011Sendai-NOAA-Energylhvpd9-05.jpg), I'm going to call "non-credible" on this item.

    "Scientists say the only safe level of radiation is zero."  Um, citation needed.  I'm sure you can find "a scientist" somewhere, and quite possibly two, who'll utter that phrase.  But it simply isn't true.  There is naturally occuring radiation in the environment, and some foods (bananas come to mind) have higher-than-background rates, naturally.

    The real questions are:  how much radiation is leaking from Fukushima (and yes, it does appear to be a lot), how much is making its way to the food chain, and how is it affecting that foodchain?

  2. Chris George
    Chris George says:

    Good catch.

    I still like the quote.

  3. Zephyr López Cervilla
    Zephyr López Cervilla says:

    +Chris George: "Of course we won't want to be eating the farmed stuff either."
    — Why not?

  4. Chris George
    Chris George says:

    Farmed salmon require large amounts of toxic chemicals to keep them free of parasites, antibiotics to keep them free of pathogens and they concentrate disease that contaminates wild runs. As a predator they also concentrate the toxins that their prey fish eat.

  5. Zephyr López Cervilla
    Zephyr López Cervilla says:

    When salmons are farmed they are no longer predators, they will eat whatever you feed them, so any pollutant will come mostly from the source of their feed.
    Farmed salmons don't necessarily require large amounts of "toxic chemicals" to be kept free of parasites, or "antibiotics" to be kept free of pathogens (BTW, many of the antibiotics that are routinely used are already naturally present in the environment), they only require to be kept away from parasites and other pathogens, and/or alternatively, to be kept with a good health and good immune function.
    On the other hand, the use of vaccines for farmed fish is widespread, an alternative strategy that minimizes the use of antibiotics and other drugs:

    Information sheet:
    – Yanong RPE. Use of Vaccines in Finfish Aquaculture. Electronic Data Information Source (EDIS). University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) Extension. FA156 (2011)
    edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fa156 

    Keynotes:
    – McLoughlin M. Fish Vaccination – A brief overview. 
    http://www.imb.ie/images/uploaded/documents/Fish%20Vaccine%20Overview.pdf 
    – Gudding R. Vaccination of fish Present status and future challenges.
    http://www.rr-africa.oie.int/docspdf/en/2010/AAH/GUDDING_2.pdf 

    Guideline:
    – RUMA. Responsible use of vaccines and vaccination in fish production. RUMA Guidelines (2006)
    ruma.org.uk/guidelines/vaccines/long/fish%20vaccine%20long.pdf 

    Papers:
    – Newman SG. Bacterial vaccines for fish. Annual Review of Fish Diseases (1993) vol. 3 pp. 145-185
    sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0959803093900338 

    – Håstein T et al. Bacterial vaccines for fish–an update of the current situation worldwide. Dev Biol (Basel) (2005) vol. 121 pp. 55-74
    (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15962470)

    – Lorenzen N and LaPatra SE. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish. Rev – Off Int Epizoot (2005) vol. 24 (1) pp. 201-13
    gbcbiotech.com/genomicaypesca/documentos/vacunas/DNA%20vaccines%20for%20aquacultered%20fish.pdf 
    (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16110889)

    – Sommerset I et al. Vaccines for fish in aquaculture. Expert Rev. Vaccines (2005) vol. 4 (1) pp. 89-101
    Introduction: thefishsite.com/articles/150
    PDF: researchgate.net/publication/7977876_Vaccines_for_fish_in_aquaculture/file/9fcfd5077d3f24c81a.pdf
    (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15757476)

    – Brudeseth BE et al. Status and future perspectives of vaccines for industrialised fin-fish farming. Fish Shellfish Immunol (2013) pii: S1050-4648(13)00597-4. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.05.029
    (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23769873)

  6. Chris George
    Chris George says:

    I live in British Columbia and am currently watching the drive to extinction of many of our runs of wild salmon. Open net farms on the wild salmon's migratory routes have been a problem by spreading lice to juvenile salmon and it now looks like the operators have managed to import ISA and have introduced it to the wild runs as well. 

    From 30 July 2013: The Norwegian Institute for Nutrition and Seafood Safety (NIFES) published their monitoring report for 2012 to fulfil EU sampling and reporting of the contaminants found in Norwegian farmed salmon in order to sell fish there.

    http://www.nifes.no/file.php?id=2030

    I note from the values presented in the report that a 200 gram recommended serving size of Norwegian farmed salmon delivers an exposure greater than the tolerable weekly intake for methyl mercury and exceeds the tolerable daily intake for dioxin/dioxin-like PCBs currently established by the EU (2 pg TEQ-WHO)/kg body weight).

    Just 2 servings of 200 grams recommended serving size of Norwegian farmed salmon from 2012 can exceed the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for adults (60 kg) and greatly exceeds the tolerable intake for children. From EFSA "The CONTAM Panel considered new scientific information regarding the toxicity of these forms of mercury and established a TWI for inorganic mercury of 4 µg/kg body weight (bw) and a TWI for methylmercury of 1.3 µg/kg bw (lower than JECFA’s TWI of 1.6 µg/kg bw). Average exposure to methylmercury in food is unlikely to exceed the TWI, but the likelihood of reaching such a level increases for high and frequent fish consumers. This group may include pregnant women, resulting in exposure of the fetus at a critical period in brain development."

    http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/topics/topic/metals.htm

    The observed values for cadmium in the 2013 report show that farmed salmon levels are only just below the EU maximum levels of 0.05 mg/kg ww, a cause for concern due to the doubling of the feed limit for cadmium from 0.5 mg/kg to 1.0 mg/kg feed in 2005. We know that fish do not uptake much Cd, but benthic organisms such as crabs do. This should be cause for concern regarding Cd contamination to the environment (http://www.vkm.no/dav/1aac40da64.pdf).

    With respect to feeds, since 2011 we know that organochlorine pesticides, PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and brominated flame retardants carry-over from feed 5-10 times in farmed salmon as compared to terrestrial farm animals:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21284993

    To know what is actually in the feed is a guess for most countries (note crystal violet detected in Chilean salmon by the US FDA) especially for antibiotic use, as summarized on Page 11 here: "The use of antibiotics included in the feed remains largely unrestricted in aquaculture in several countries with high and growing aquaculture production. Information on types and amounts of therapeutic agents used in aquaculture throughout the world is not easily obtainable, since only a few nations provide reliable, detailed and accessible statistics on consumption of these drugs…"

    http://www.mri.bund.de/fileadmin/Service/Termine/MRC/MRI_MRC2012_Abstracts.pdf

  7. Zephyr López Cervilla
    Zephyr López Cervilla says:

    None of those issues are intrinsic to fish farming. Blaming to it is like blaming the electric grid for the soot generated by coal plants.
    The pollutants present in farmed fish (PCBs, PCDFs, PCDD/Fs, chlorinated hydrocarbons, lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, etc.[1]) haven't been generated by the activity of fish farming, but rather they come from somewhere else.
    As for the spread of parasites to wild salmon, this can prevented by either de-parasitizing the farmed fish or by overdimensioning the physical barriers (nets, filters) that separate the farmed fish and particulate matter in their water from their surrounding environment.

    1. fao.org/fishery/topic/14815/en

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